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                      詠傀儡

                      內容編輯:好句子網 內容欄目: 古詩詞大全
                      詠傀儡

                      鮑老當筵笑郭郎,笑他舞袖太郎當。

                      若教鮑老當筵舞,轉更郎當舞袖長。

                      賞析

                      楊億是宋初西昆體詩派的代表作家之一,其詩,如《淚》、《無題》等組詩,頗能反映出西昆體詩的特點。不過,其中也有與西昆體迥異之作。上錄《詠傀儡》便是一首別有風味的佳構。

                      這首詩用樸素自然的語言詠傀儡以言情,形象生動,耐人咀嚼。詩題《詠傀儡》,意為吟詠木偶戲中的木偶。詩的前兩句“鮑老當筵笑郭郎,笑他舞袖太郎當”,“鮑老”,是宋代戲劇中的角色;“郭郎”,是戲劇中的丑角,詩中系指木偶戲中的木偶。這里,著墨無多,卻使鮑老與郭郎的形象躍然紙上。詩人寫鮑老,突出一個“笑”字;寫郭郎,則緊扣其“舞袖太郎當”(衣服寬大,與身材不稱)。透過這兩行詩,我們仿佛目睹鮑老當筵笑郭郎的笑容,耳聞其笑語,也仿佛看到郭郎甩動著寬長的衣袖機械起舞的舞姿。

                      詩的后兩句“若教鮑老當筵舞,轉更郎當舞袖長”,筆鋒一轉,作出假設:倘若讓鮑老當筵舞,則鮑老的舞袖較之郭郎反而更顯得寬長。這兩行詩,令人讀后忍俊不禁:哦,原來那個譏笑郭郎舞袖太郎當的鮑老,其舞袖更為郎當。這樣,鮑老就成了一個缺乏自知之明的角色,他對郭郎的譏笑,也就變為他的自我嘲笑。

                      顯然,這首詩在藝術上的特色是寓譏刺于幽默之中,詩旨不在寫鮑老笑郭郎舞袖太郎當,而在譏刺鮑老缺乏自知之明,以及傀儡的身不由己。但詩人不是以一副嚴肅的面孔,聲色俱厲地呵斥之,而是面露笑容,說出蘊藏著譏刺鋒芒的幽默話來,從而,令人于一陣輕松發笑之后,陷入沉思,有所領悟。這種寓譏刺于幽默之中的藝術,較之直露譏刺鋒芒要委婉含蓄,耐人尋味。

                      這首詩,題為《詠傀儡》,表面上看是詠傀儡,其實,在詠傀儡中又另有所譏。從郭郎的舞袖太郎當,從傀儡的身不由己,從無自知之明的可笑的鮑老身上,我們極易聯想到社會生活中那些為他人所操縱、身不由己、缺乏自知之明的形形色色的人物。以質樸、幽默的語言詠傀儡來譏刺世態,這便是《詠傀儡》一詩的作者之匠心所在。

                      (原載廣西大學《閱讀與寫作》月刊,1988年第1期)

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