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                      約客

                      內容編輯:好句子網 內容欄目: 古詩詞大全
                      約客

                      黃梅時節家家雨,青草池塘處處蛙。

                      有約不來過夜半,閑敲棋子落燈花。

                      注釋

                      ①約客:約請客人來相會。

                      ②黃梅時節:農歷四、五月間,江南梅子黃了,熟了,大都是陰雨連連的時候,成為“梅雨季節”,所以稱江南雨季為“黃梅時節”。意思就是夏初江南梅子黃熟的時節。

                      ③家家雨:家家戶戶都趕上下雨。形容處處都在下雨。

                      ④處處蛙:到處是青蛙。

                      ⑤有約:即邀約友人。

                      ⑥落燈花:舊時以油燈照明,燈心燒殘,落下來時好像一朵閃亮的小花。落:使……掉落。燈花:燈芯燃盡結成的花狀物。

                      約客選自《清苑齋集》(《南宋群賢小集》本)。

                      譯文

                      黃梅時節一個梅雨綿綿的夜晚,鄉村的青草池塘中傳來陣陣蛙鳴。這時已經是半夜了,朋友卻沒有如約到來,無聊地敲著棋子,燈灰震落在棋盤上。

                      賞析

                      首句“黃梅時節家家雨”,交待了當時的環境。黃梅時節乃是立夏后數日梅子由青轉黃之時,江南多雨,俗稱黃梅天。其時細雨綿綿,正所謂“自在飛花輕似夢,無邊絲雨細如愁”。對于視覺,是一種低沉的安慰。至于雨敲在鱗鱗千瓣的瓦上,由遠而近,輕輕重重輕輕,夾著一股股的細流沿瓦槽與屋檐潺潺泄下,各種敲擊音與滑音密織成網”,仿佛“誰的千指百指在按摩耳輪”,心情異常恬靜安祥。

                      “青草池塘處處蛙”這句,詩人的注意力從霏霏淫雨,自然而然地轉到了遠遠近近,此起彼伏的片片蛙聲,正是這處處蛙聲,烘托出了當時周遭的清靜,試想,如非心如止水,神游物外,而是焦灼煩躁,何以知微渺“蟲聲”今夜“新透綠窗紗”?

                      再看第三句“有約不來過夜半”。我猜想,書中之所以得出“焦灼”結論,多半便依了這句。朋友過了夜半還不來,倘是你我,當然不免焦灼。但這是趙師秀,是“永嘉四靈”之一,人稱“鬼才”的趙師秀。趙師秀,字紫芝,又字靈秀,光宗紹熙元年進士,曾任上元縣主薄,筠州推官。他雖寄身仕宦,但失意消沉,常與僧道同游山水之間,向往恬靜淡泊的生活,甚至還想與陶淵明一樣“歸尋故園”(《九客一羽衣泛舟,分韻得尊字,就送朱幾仲》)。他死后,江湖派巨子戴復古作《哭趙紫芝》,說他是“東晉時人物”。當不致于“有約不來過夜半”便焦灼不安吧?

                      最后一句“閑敲棋子落燈花”。我不知道前人是怎么理解“閑”字的。我是這樣想,“閑敲”之“閑”,應當仿佛我們偶憑小幾,百無聊賴,適見案頭筆墨,于是順手拿過,隨隨便便,漫不經心,信筆涂去,一如陸游“矮紙斜行閑作草”之意趣。趙師秀也便這樣坐于燈前,遙等客人不至,百無聊賴,適見局中棋子,于是順手拈起,隨隨便便,漫不經心,信手敲去,何來焦灼之感?

                      贊助推薦

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