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                      夏意

                      內容編輯:好句子網 內容欄目: 古詩詞大全
                      夏意

                      別院深深夏簟清,石榴開遍透簾明。

                      樹陰滿地日當午,夢覺流鶯時一聲。

                      注釋

                      別院:正院旁側的小院

                      簟:竹席

                      覺:睡醒

                      譯文

                      小院在宅庭幽深處,小院深深,曲徑通幽,在這極清極靜的環境中有小軒一座,竹席一領。詩人欹臥于其上,閑望戶外,只見榴花盛開,透過簾櫳,展現著明艷的風姿。當中夏亭午,而小院中仍清陰遍地,一片涼意。待到醒來時,只聽得園林深處不時傳來一兩聲流鶯鳴啼的清韻。

                      賞析

                      蘇舜欽這首《夏意》詩,能于盛夏炎熱之時寫出一種清幽之境,悠曠之情。

                      “別院深深夏席清”:“夏”字點明節令,而“別院”、“深深”、“清”三詞卻層層深入,一開始即構成清幽的氣氛。別院即正院旁側的小院。深深,言此小院在宅庭幽深處,小院深深,曲徑通幽,在這極清極靜的環境中有小軒一座,竹席一領。韓愈《鄭群贈簟》詩曾以“卷送八尺含風漪”、“肅肅疑有清飚吹”形容竹席。“夏席清”,正同此意,謂雖當盛夏,而小院深處,竹席清涼。深深是疊詞,深深與清,韻母又相近,音質均清亮平遠。這樣不僅從文字形象上,更從音樂形象上給人以涼爽幽深之感。

                      “石榴開遍透簾明”:“簾”字點明夏席鋪展在軒屋之中。詩人欹臥于席上,閑望戶外,只見榴花盛開,透過簾櫳,展現著明艷的風姿。韓愈曾有句云“五月榴花照眼明”(《榴花》),第二句化用其意,卻又加上了一重帷簾。隔簾而望榴花,雖花紅如火,卻無刺目之感。

                      陶淵明有句云:“藹藹堂前林,中夏貯清陰”(《和郭主簿》)。此詩第三句正由陶詩化出,謂雖當中夏亭午,而小院中仍清陰遍地,一片涼意。此句與上句設色相映,從“樹陰滿地”可想見綠樹成林,不寫樹,而寫陰,更顯得小院之清涼寧謐。

                      在這清幽的環境中詩人又在干什么呢?“夢覺流鶯時一聲”,原來他已為小院清景所撫慰,雖然烈日當午,卻已酣然入睡,待到“夢覺”,只聽得園林深處不時傳來一兩聲流鶯鳴啼的清韻。寫鶯聲而不寫黃鶯本身,既見得樹蔭之茂密深邃,又以闃靜之中時歇時現的嚦嚦之聲,反襯出這小院的幽深寧謐。南朝王籍詩云:“鳥鳴山更幽”(《入若耶溪》),王維《辛夷塢》:“月出驚山鳥,時鳴春澗中”。末句意境正與二詩相類。

                      此詩無一句不切夏景,又句句透散著清爽之意,讀之似有微颸拂面之感。

                      詩的表現手法尚有三點可注意:

                      筆致輕巧空靈:寫庭院,落墨在深深別院;寫榴花,則施以帷簾;寫綠樹,從清陰看出;寫黃鶯,從啼聲聽得,句句從空際著筆,遂構成與晝寢相應的明麗而縹緲的意境。

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