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                      首頁 > 詩歌大全 > 古詩詞大全 > 納涼

                      納涼

                      內容編輯:好句子網 內容欄目: 古詩詞大全
                      納涼

                      攜扙來追柳外涼,

                      畫橋南畔倚胡床。

                      月明船笛參差起,

                      風定池蓮自在香。

                      賞析

                      這句連用“攜”、“來”、“追”三個動詞,把詩人攜杖出戶后的動作,分出層次加以表現。其中“追”字更是曲折、含蓄地傳達出詩人追尋理想中的納涼勝處的內在感情,實自杜甫《羌村》“憶昔好追涼”句點化而成。這樣,詩人急于從火海中解脫出來的情懷,通過一系列動作,就自然而然地表現出來。

                      次句具體指出了柳外納涼地方的方位和臨時的布置:“畫橋南畔倚胡床。”這是一個綠柳成行,位于“畫橋南畔”的佳處。詩人選好了目的地,安上胡床,依“倚”其上,盡情領略納涼的況味。在詩人看來,這也可算“最是人間佳絕處”(《睡足軒》)了。胡床,即交椅,可躺臥。陶潛“倚南窗以寄傲”(《歸去來兮辭》),是為了遠離塵俗;秦觀“倚胡床”以“追涼”,是為了驅解煩熱,都是對美好生活的一種向往,他們或多或少是有相通之處的。

                      一二兩句寫仔細尋覓納涼勝地。三四兩句則展開了對它的美妙景色的描繪:“月明船笛參差起,風定池蓮自在香。”月明之夜,船家兒女吹著短笛,笛聲參差而起,在水面縈繞不絕。晚風初定,池中蓮花盛開,自在幽香不時散溢,沁人心脾。詩人閑倚胡床,怡神閉目,不只感宮上得到滿足,連心境也分外舒適。這兩句采取了對偶句式,把納涼時的具體感受藝術地組合起來,于是,一個納涼勝地的自然景色,就活現在讀者面前。

                      此詩以納涼為題,詩中著力表現的是一個絕離煩熱之處。詩人首先經過尋訪,發現了這個處所的秘密,其次進行具體布置,置身其間,與外境融而為一,把思想感情寄托在另外一個“自清涼無汗”的世界。

                      宋人呂本中曾在《童蒙詩訓》中評論“少游此詩閑雅嚴重”(《詩林廣記》引),“閑雅”當指此詩詞語上的特點而言,“嚴重”則涉及此詩嚴肅而鄭重的內容。它很可能是秦觀在仕途遭到挫折后的作品。

                      《納涼》是一首描寫景物的短詩。從字面上看,可以說沒有反映什么社會生活內容。但是,透過詩句的表面,卻隱約地表現出:詩人渴望遠離的是炙手可熱的官場社會,這就是他刻意追求一個理想中的清涼世界的原因。秦觀是一個有用世之志的詩人。他對官場的奔競傾奪表示厭棄,力求遠避,此詩表達的就是這種感情。這種把創作念圖隱藏在詩句背后的寫法,讀者應著意體會。

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